GeoGuessr places the player on a series of five algorithmically determined semi-random locations around the world. The locations are limited to roads and other paths that have been photographed by Google Street View cameras, which excludes the majority of Asia and Africa, large portions of South America and most of the far north in Canada and Russia.

The Street View window of GeoGuessr does not provide any information beyond the street view images; things such as road signs, vegetation, businesses, climate, and landmarks have been suggested as some clues that may help the player determine their location. The player may also move about along the roads through the normal directional controls provided by Street View. Once the player is ready to guess the location, they will place a location marker on a zoom-able Google Map. After the placed marker is submitted as a guess, GeoGuessr reveals the true geographic location and assigns the player a score depending on how far away the player's guess was from the true location.